January 4 COVER The universe is filled with filamentary structures of dark and visible matter that make up the “cosmic web,” as suggested in this artist’s rendering of cosmic bubbles and connected clumps. A special section beginning on page 46 considers the latest research into the origins and evolution of the cosmic web. Image: Shigemi Numazawa/Atlas Photo Bank/Photo Researchers Inc.

February 1 COVER A three-dimensional model of the topological structure of zeolite SSZ-65. The Gordon Research Conference on Nanoporous Materials will be held 15 to 20 June 2008 at Colby College, Waterville, ME. The schedules for the 2008 Gordon Research Conferences begin on page 637. Model creation and rendering: Kelly Harvey and Scott Harvey

February 8 COVER The Ginza area of Tokyo in 2006. By 2030 the number of urban dwellers will have exploded to 4.8 billion people, roughly 60 percent of the projected world population, whereas only 13 percent lived in cities in 1900. The special section beginning on page 739 includes News stories, Reviews, and Perspectives that explore the ramifications of urban transformation. Photo: Getty Images

February 15 COVER A depiction of the interaction of an excess electron with the hydrogen-bonded complex NH3HCl, which induces formation of the ionic pair NH4+Cl__ solvated by the excess electron. The image shows the structures of three possible systems and highlights the areas that correspond to 10%, 30%, and 50% of the excess electron. See page 936. Illustration: Maciej Haranczyk

March 7 COVER An example of “art” by self-styled guerrilla artist Banksy, as seen in East London in November 2007. Human behavior that would be characterized as antisocial punishment can also be called art; prosocial institutions, most notably the campaign Keep Britain Tidy, refer to Banksy’s work as vandalism. See page 1362. Photo: Chris Jackson/Getty Images

March 14 COVER Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) domestication and selection resulted in an explosion of different fruit shapes and sizes, as exemplified by heirloom varieties. Wild ancestors of tomatoes such as S. pimpinellifolium, the smallest fruit shown here, were round (middle row, second from left). See page 1527. Image: Kelly Krause/Science; photos: Esther van der Knaap

March 21 COVER Clusters of the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Staphylococcus aureus has been called a “superbug” because of its ability to resist numerous antibiotics and evade host antimicrobial mediators, including nitric oxide. See page 1672. Image: Annie Cavanagh/Wellcome Images

March 28 COVER The many layers of gene regulation in a eukaryotic cell, envisioned as a video game. Transcription in the nucleus (green circle) proceeds to translation in the cytoplasm via genome topology, polymerase pausing, microRNA repression, RNA splicing, and riboswitch regulation. See the special section beginning on page 1781. Illustration: Carin L. Cain

May 2 COVER Graphic representation of an integrated quantum optics controlled-NOT chip. Single photons (represented as flashes) propagate on the chip, confined by silica waveguides, and are then coupled into optical fibers for detection. See page 646. Image: W. Amery/Bristol University

May 16 COVER Male flowers of Gurania makoyana, a Central American plant in the cucumber family, harbor larvae (not visible) of two species of fly; a third fly species infests female flowers of the same species of plant. Some plant species in this family can host as many as 13 different fly species. See page 928. Photo: Marty Condon

June 6 COVER A bearded, horned terra cotta mask, about 5 centimeters in height, found at Mohenjo Daro, Pakistan. The artifact, which may have been attached to a puppet, offers a rare glimpse into the 5000-year-old Indus civilization. See page 1276. Image: J. M. Kenoyer/Courtesy of the Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Pakistan

June 20 COVER False-color image of a section of the Semarkona meteorite. The round objects are chondrules; the large one near the bottom center is about 2 millimeters across. Magnesium-rich minerals (olivine and pyroxene) appear red, sodium-rich glass appears yellow, and the iron-rich material surrounding the chondrules includes matrix (greenish) and sulfides, metal, and oxides (blue). The sodium in the glass suggests that the chondrules formed in extremely dusty environments in the early solar system. See page 1617. Image: Jeffrey Grossman/USGS

July 18 COVER An artist’s conception of the antibiotic penicillin and some of the bacteria that have developed resistance to various antibiotics. A special section beginning on page 355 explores the rise and spread of so-called bad bugs and possible interventions. Illustration: Chris Bickel/Science

July 25 COVER Wealthy nations now devote billions of dollars each year to helping low- and middle-income countries confront HIV/AIDS epidemics. Investment in biomedical research has also shot up. What has come of this flood of money? And will there be enough in the future to meet increasing demands? See the special section beginning on page 511. Image: Kelly Krause/Science

August 8 COVER Simulation of a vesicle interacting with a lipid bilayer (lipid head groups in green and blue, tails in cyan; water is not shown). The computation uses a coarse-grained model with over 1 million interaction sites, equivalent to more than 10 million atoms. See the special section beginning on page 783. Image: Wataru Shinoda/Research Institute for Computational Sciences, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan; Mike Klein/Center for Molecular Modeling, University of Pennsylvania

September 5 COVER Mammalian fatty acid synthase, a multienzyme that catalyzes all steps of fatty acid biosynthesis. A blueprint of its atomic structure is shown in three views, and the extent of its functional domains is indicated by colored bars. The versatile segmental construction is also used in other members of this large family of multienzymes, which synthesize natural products such as antibiotics. See page 1315. Image: Marc Leibundgut and Timm Maier/ETH Zurich

September 12 COVER Millions of books written before the computer era are being digitized for preservation. Because the ink has faded, optical character recognition software cannot decipher many words. Through a repurposing of an existing online security technology called CAPTCHA, these words are being manually transcribed by millions of Web users. See page 1465. Photo: Joshua Franzos

September 19 COVER A cotton bollworm larva (Helicoverpa armigera) feeds on a cotton boll. Transgenic Bt cotton was designed to resist this and other caterpillar pests. See page 1676. Image: Nigel Cattlin/Visuals Unlimited Inc.

September 26 COVER Boulders and roots, or spores and hyphae? Parallel microscopic and macroscopic worlds merge in this detail from one of the winners of this year’s Science/NSF International Science & Engineering Visualization Challenge. See the special section beginning on page 1767. Image: Colleen Champ, with micrographs by Dennis Kunkel.

October 24 COVER The surface of the Sun shows rapidly changing patterns due to convection, as well as global oscillations of very low amplitude. The CoRoT (Convection Rotation and Planetary Transits) satellite, launched in December 2006, has now measured both phenomena in other stars. See page 558. Image: Thomas Berger; ISP/Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

November 14 COVER A montage showing three views of a 5-millimeter-long juvenile medaka, with the nervous system imaged with a digital scanned laser light sheet fluorescence microscope. This technique has been used to reconstruct embryogenesis in zebrafish. See page 1065. Image: Philipp Keller, Lazaro Centanin, Annette Schmidt/EMBL

November 21 COVER X-rays emerge with varying intensity (red/green wave) as an electron is pulled out of and then pushed back into a vibrating N2O4 molecule by an intense laser field. The pattern reveals real-time dynamic changes in electronic spatial configurations, or orbitals, at the compressed (left blue orbital) and stretched (right blue orbital) limits of the vibration cycle. See page 1207. Image: Greg Kuebler, JILA/University of Colorado

November 28 COVER Two direct detections of extrasolar planet candidates. Top: Keck Telescope colored infrared image of star HR 8799, for which the starlight is masked, showing three surrounding planets (red dots). Bottom: Superposed Hubble Space Telescope visible images from 2 years apart, tracing the orbit of a planet surrounding the star Fomalhaut. See pages 1345 and 1348. Images: Christian Marois/NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Canada; Paul Kalas/University of California, Berkeley

December 12 COVER Finite element method simulation of an Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem where two cells have been laser-ablated. The color map indicates the von Mises stress (a measure of distortional stress); the white lines mark the directions of maximal principal stress, which are circumferential around the ablated cells, in agreement with experimentally determined microtubule orientations. See page 1650. Image: Pawel Krupinski/Lund University